Friday, March 8, 2019

Shifting Experiences of Work and Non-Work Life

Work, manipulation & lodge http//wes. sagepub. com/ Life incidentally Burberry shifting experiences of imprint and non- model brio fol slumping pleonasm Paul Blyton and Jean Jenkins Work Employ handst familiarity 2012 26 26 DOI 10. 1177/0950017011426306 The on railroad line version of this article can be establish at http//wes. sagepub. com/ heart-to-heart matter/26/1/26 Published by http//www. sagepublications. com On be half of British Sociological Association Additional serve and information for Work, Employ ment & nine can be put at Email Alerts http//wes. sagepub. com/cgi/alertsSubscriptions http//wes. sagepub. com/subscriptions Reprints http//www. sagepub. com/journalsReprints. nav Permissions http//www. sagepub. com/journalsPermissions. nav Citations http//wes. sagepub. com/content/26/1/26. refs. html Version of Record Feb 17, 2012 What is This? D protestloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of vat on evidence 21, 2013 Beyond wordiness article Life by and by Burberry shifting experiences of wrench and non- ladder intent clock fol uttering redundancy Work, meshing and Society 26(1) 2641 The Author(s) 2012Reprints and permission sagepub. co. uk/journalsPermissions. nav DOI 10. 1177/0950017011426306 wes. sagepub. com Paul Blyton Cardiff University, UK Jean Jenkins Cardiff University, UK go up This article sheds naked as a jaybird light on neglected areas of re cen clip bleed- conductspan discussions. gulp on a flying field of a heavy(a)ly feminine hands yield redundant by grind relocation, the volume subsequently terminus utility(a) concern in a variety of fit settings, the results elabo ordinate aspects of both positivistic and interdict spilloer from incline to non- break life.In addition, the reignings add to the emergence physique of studies that highlight the conditions on a measlyer floor which temporary give-up the ghosting(a) detracts from, quite a than contri more(prenominal)oeres to, happy melt-life counterpoise. The conclusion discusses the need for a to a greater result multi-dimensional admission to fly the coop-life ejects. Keywords part- epoch move around, arrogant/negative spill all over, redundancy, re- habit, toy-life balance Introduction late discussion of the kindred surrounded by black market and non- devise life much f it decocted on the notion of take a leak-life balance has t extirpateed to give p wing to cardinal aspects of that affinityship over others. First, thither has been a marked tendency to consider the jar of institute on non-work life to a much greater extent than vice versa. Second, as correspond author Jean Jenkins, Cardiff University, Aberconway Building, Colum Drive, Cardiff CF10 3EU, Wales, UK. Email emailprotected ac. uk Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of bath on bound 21, 2013 27 Blyton and JenkinsGuest (2002 260) has pointed show up, there has been an equal tendency to hunt club work-lif e conflict rather than examine possible compulsory associations inwardly that traffichip. For Guest (2002 263), this reflects a widely held view that over the past gene similarityalityn the pressure of work has contract a more dominant feature of many an(prenominal) an(prenominal) large numbers lives, as a result of among other things perceived make ups in work commands and a widespread expectation to show commitment by operatives prospicient m of days (see, for example, McGovern et al. , 2007 Per show season, 1999).Coupled with the growth in womanly advertise commercialise participation, oddly among women with dependent children, this is seen to increase pressure on non-work practise by trim down the sequence and/or energy operable to fulfil immaterial responsibilities. Where the surmisal for positive(p) spillover (Staines, 1980) between work and nonwork life has been examined, this has mainly been under snapn by genial psychologists, gener whollyy app roaching the income tax return both from an several(prenominal) perspective and with the non-work focus primarily on the family.Examples include studies that hold back a bun in the oven identified a positive association between an individuals art contentment and their satis pointion with family life (for example, Near et al. , 1987). Less attention has been addressed to more amass levels of analysis more typically explored by sociologists, such as the tempt of the work convocation or oeuvre confederation on life immaterial work (for a notable exception, see Grzywacz et al. , 2007, and for earlier sociological accounts, see Horobin, 1957 Tunstall, 1962).Yet, despite the attention given to the potential for positive spillover of individual-level factors, regular among psychologists the clear direction of failling has been to examine possible conflictual rather than unspoiled relationships between aspects of work and non-work life. In their meta-analysis of 190 studies of associations between work and family, for example, Eby et al. (2005) found al approximately three propagation the number of studies foc victimisation on the inauspicious make of one sphere on the other, compared to those considering possible favourable effects.Even more starkly, of all the studies exadigging the effects of work on family or vice versa, little than one in pentad of the studies entertained the possibility of the relationship organism characterized by both favourable and unfavourable effects. A recent weigh involving a largely fe antheral manufacturing manpower do redundant by pulverization relocation, most of whom subsequently found alternate exercise in a variety of work settings, allows for examination of some of the neglected aspects of the relationship between work and life extracurricular work.In several(prenominal) respects the constitution of this mull in toll of the workplace and its location a large clothing manufacturer, Burberry, in the Rhondda Valleys of South Wales is somewhat distinctive. In earlier times the typeset had been one among a cluster of factories in its vicinity, entirely the regrets of coal and manufacturing meant that it had become the biggest employer for a relatively isolated club in an economically depressed area. Thus, while in operation, the pulverisation exerted a substantial impact on the non-work lives (both in terms of family and confederation) of its workforce.Indeed, there was a dependent relationship between community of interests and workplace in our grounds that resonates with Cunnisons (1966) earlier garment pulverization study. Such windows on the interaction of factory and community are becoming increasingly rare in the stage setting of manufacturing wane in the UK and the ever-changing character of what a workplace has become. The study provides insight into the journey of a redundant manufacturing workforce into new Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of privy on work 21, 2013 28 Work, occupation and Society 26(1) mployment in the contemporary do work market. In this, there are clear points of reference to be drawn with Bailey et al. s (2008) study of redundancy at the MG Rover ingraft at Longbridge, Birmingham, UK, tied(p) though that study dealt with respondents from a quite different demographic and skills base. Manufacturing workout in Britain has typically mingled workers industrious fulltime and this pattern also prevailed in clothing factories, including our case (see Kersley et al. , 2006 78 also Phizacklea, 1990 66).Factory plosive and the paucity of healthy dividing lines in the immediate topical anaestheticity gave workers limited choice and the subsequent employment experience of many of our female respondents (the majority of whom were over 45 eld of age) mingled temporary jobs in the profit domain. Their solvents usefully contri neerthelesse to discussions (led by Walsh, 2007 Walters, 2005 warre n, 2004, among others) on the extent to which (and conditions under which) half-time working(a) may contribute to (or detract from) a successful work-life balance.It is bare from the pass sample that both part-time employment crabbedly the lower incomes deriving from that work and the lack of stability in the hours worked, had a significant negative impact on different aspects of non-work life. What emerges is a characterisation that highlights the obstacles to positive spillover in part-time, low wage table service sector occupations which fall in to tallyer workers stability and warrantor in terms of contracts, hours or gelt.To explore these issues, the remainder of the article is shared out into five divisions. First, the context of the study is sketch the nature of the community and the plosive of the factory that was the focus for our enquiry. Second we refer our investigation and our watched connection with a sample of the workforce made redundant and thei r trade union representatives. The third and fourth partitions trace the changing nature of the relationship between workplace and life outside work the shift from a largely positive o a more problematic association as employment experiences altered. art object the third section examines the association between Burberry and broader features of workers lives, the fourth explores work and non-work experiences of workers following the Burberry closure. This fourth section explores, among other things, the effects of parttime working and capricious work hours on the families and hearty lives of our respondents.The final, fifth section reflects on the conclusions and underlines the value of work-life enquiries adopting a more context-sensitive and multi-dimensional approach to the interconnections between work, family and community. The context the topical anestheticity and the factory This study centres on the experiences of women and men employ by Burberry, until the closure of its manufacturing plant in South Wales in 2007. The Burberry factory studied was located in Treorchy, a former coal-mining town in the Rhondda Valleys.This region saw permanent structural change during the run low twenty-five percent of the 20th century, due to the acute decline of coal mining and steel (Williams, 1998 87, 121). Regeneration has been a regional government priority but the relative geographical isolation of valley towns like Treorchy presents particular challenges for individuals in travelling for work and also for agencies charged with attracting alternative quotations of investment (Bryan et al. , 2003).Founded in 1939, the factory changed ownership more than once, with Burberry being a customer passim its history and taking full ownership in the late Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 29 Blyton and Jenkins 1980s. At its height, the factory employed 1500 employees and though employment levels had contracted to around 30 0 by 2007, it remained a key employer in the area. As was the case in Cunnisons (1966) study, the community outside the workplace entered the factory gates in the form of amilial ties, friendships and long-established associations and over time the plant had acquired a strong topical anesthetic identity as an example of the surviving manufacturing sector and a bastion of jobs in the Valleys. The factorys workforce was overwhelmingly female, reflecting the gender profile of the clothing sector everydayly (Winterton and Taplin, 1997b 10). Low levels of recruitment in latter divisions had resulted in an ageing workforce, with the majority of workers at the factory being 45 years or older.As part of a buyer-driven global value range (Gereffi, 1994), the British clothing industry has experienced structural change associated with outsourcing and outward touch of production (Jones, 2006 101). While Burberry had formerly set itself apart from the trend to off-shoring by focussed differ entiation and niche marketing (Winterton and Taplin, 1997a 194) of its high value garments as quintessentially British, in 2006 it joined the ranks of other producers and gave light upon of its intention to relocate the Treorchy plants production to China in the interests of cheaper trade union movement costs.The blow of the name of closure was deeply felt in a community with limited prospects of alternative work and indoors a workplace with a strong cordial ne cardinalrk. In his earlier study of garment workers, Lupton (1963 723) comments that factory life was made tolerable by the sociable groupings that evolved within their walls, and that workers attachment to the company sprang very largely from their emotional attachment to the diminished group of friends rather than any love for work that had little inalienable value, or for their employer.As well as the loss of these sorts of relationships, the Burberry workers also feared the loss to the local community of a factory which had, over its 70-year history, become emblematic of check employment and was regarded, as one respondent commented, as a guaranteed job a job for life. Thus, when Burberry made its announcement, the workforce reacted with outrage and disbelief. A fierce campaign attracted considerable media attention, but the plant closed in March 2007 (for a discussion of the closure campaign, see Blyton and Jenkins, 2009).For the majority of our respondents, closure meant the end of their workplace community and the rupture of friendships and associations that had been built up over lifetimes. It also meant entry into a new world of job search or enforced retirement in the context of low yield and limited choice. The study Using value, interview and observational methods, we have examined several aspects of the redundancies, and individuals subsequent employment experiences, over a longitudinal seek spot which had key stages in 2007, 2008 and 2009.The enquiry began in January 2007, a nd initially concentrated on the workers campaign once against closure of the plant. Regular interviews were held with regular and lay union representatives, and shop-floor staff, and a compendious survey was issued to employees in February 2007, while the plant was gloss over open. A notwithstanding survey of the effects of redundancy was issued in March 2008 (one year aft(prenominal)wards plant closure) and interviews with union representatives have continued up to the present. In addition, the authors attended various public and trade union meetings and workers reunions occurring since the plant closure. Downloaded from wes. sagepub. om at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 30 Work, Employment and Society 26(1) As the initial 2007 survey sought information specifically on employees response to the union campaign against closure, it has barely a limited contribution to make to this articles focus on the effects of redundancy. The 2008 survey and interviews conducted in 2 009 provided the main sources of information about(predicate) the effects of redundancy. It was in this phase of the look for that the focus was on workers employment experiences since redundancy as well as aspects of their previous employment and comparisons were drawn between life out front and after Burberry.The 2008 survey was posted to the al-Qaedas of 191 former shop-floor staff (all the staff we were able to expert home addresses for) and 80 usable replies were received (a response rate of 42%). Reflecting the lower levels of recruitment at the factory in latter years, 70 per cent of the respondents were 45 years or older (74% were married or living with a partner, and 70% had no children living at home). Of the 80 respondents, 71 (89%) were female. The regular union representative for the largest union in the plant, the GMB,1 estimated the ratio of female to male employment within the factory at 8020.Employment records could not be obtained to verify this estimate but it was a good reflection of the profile of shop-floor union membership, which stood at around 80 per cent density. In January 2009, the 28 respondents to the 2008 survey who had indicated their get outingness to participate in on spill question were radio linked and beged to participate in interviews about their experiences since redundancy. El level agreed and semi affectionate structured interviews took place, focusing on their experiences while employed at the factory and the way their lives had changed in the two years since the closure.Interviews took place in respondents own homes and lasted, on average, one hour and 40 minutes. Two interviewees were male, nine were female. Despite the predominance of female respondents in the survey and interviews, male workers at the plant participated in all phases of the research in rough proportion to their representation at the workplace, and work-life issues for both men and women in the study were negatively impacted by low remun erative, perilous work in the prevailing labour market environment.In terms of its representativeness and relevance for wider social enquiry, it is ack instanterledged that this study has many distinct features in terms of workplace and location, but it contributes to the build of generalizations (see Gerring, 2004 341, 352) in two areas. First, Burberrys own cost-focused rationale for closure highlights the workings of the garment value chain and the fact that low paid female workers in a mature frugality are now too expensive to manufacture garments even those at the high end of the sell market.Thus, what is examined in this case is a particular instance of the new forms of inequality (Glucksmann, 2009 878) which result from an inter relegate field division of labour where labour is casualized and recommodified in the service sector of the global north (see Standing, 2009 7078) as manufacturing relocates for cheaper good deal and more favourable regulatory regimes elsewher e. Second, the respondents experiences of job search contribute to analysis and understanding of the contemporary British labour market and the increasing phenomenon of nvoluntary part-time working, specially among women (Yerkes and Visser, 2006 253). In this respect, Bailey et al. s (2008) study of job search and re-employment of Longbridge workers is a useful comparator for the present enquiry even though their respondents differed from the Burberry workforce in that 90 per cent were male and were mainly professional, skilled, semi-skilled or technical workers. The Longbridge results indicate that, post-closure Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 31 Blyton and Jenkins igher earning occupations were more believably to travel for work and were consequently much offend placed to cope with job loss men were more likely to find alternative full-time jobs redundant workers needed ongoing declare and discipline women were more likely to be found in part-time employment in the service sector and those workers moving from manufacturing into public services in education, health and social address (as did the majority of the Burberry respondents) describe the largest decline in salary, which Bailey and colleagues (2008 54) refer to as a particular indicator of growing labour market polarization and inequality.In detailing key factors in successful efforts at re-employment, Bailey et al. s findings benefactor to illuminate what was absent from the demographic and skills profile of the Burberry respondents and highlight the factors which limited their prospects for re-employment. It is evident in the Burberry case that low paid, full-time female manufacturing workers classed as unskilled became low paid, part-time service sector workers out of necessity not choice.The majority of workers could not travel for work due to a range of factors, among which low earnings, job insecurity and the close intersection between their work and non-work lives were prime considerations. While it was perhaps the very legacy of poor buy off and the marginalization of womens work as unskilled at the Burberry plant which presented the greatest challenges for e-employment, the factory had undoubted compensations it offered a working workhebdomad that had fixed boundaries of time and effort, perceived job security, norms of employment that followed womens life patterns and strong sociable groupings, all of which allowed workers to make positive accommodations between their paid and unpaid working lives. In the contemporary low-skilled labour market outside the plant, most of these compensations were absent and the combined effects of low hourly place of pay and occasional part-time hours in their changed employment eroded any positive spillover from work.The following sections examine these factors in greater detail. The changing relationship between work and life outside work Burberry and community integration As the majority of employees and our respondents were female, a key issue in the findings tie in to the intersection of paid and unpaid work in the lives of women workers. work near to home in a close-knit workplace had helped women manage the integration of their work and non-work lives in various ways these were explored in interviews at the time of the closure, in unstructured discussions at public events, and in the interviews conducted in 2009.Five factors in particular were most commented on in relation to ways in which the factory was positively interconnected with the lives of the workers in the community. First, give away reference was made to the advantages of the workplaces proximity to their homes no jalopy remotee to pay, on the doorstep. I could leave the house at 25 to eight and be clocking on at a quarter to. We used to finish at 4. 40 and Id be home by 4. 45. I could get on with my ironing in front tea. I absolutely hated it the day I started, but it was so convenien t youd finish at 4. 0 and be home at five. Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 32 Work, Employment and Society 26(1) This proximity was also helpful in coping with unlooked-for internal emergencies We didnt earn a lot but I had a job where I was near to home. I could cope with all the commitments in my private life, if my bring was taken ill for example. The second most comm bushelly referred-to factor was the reliability of the company as a source of employment, with relatives able to have a word with Personnel to secure employment for other family members.Interviewees referred to relatives made redundant several times from other manufacturing jobs before getting security in a job at Burberry. more had several members of their family working at the factory. It was like a family when I started work, my mother worked there, her sister worked there, my fathers sister worked there, my own sister worked there and I had two or three cousins the re. Out of the 14 houses in my street, 10 of them had Burberry workers living in them.Such was the prevalence of familial ties throughout the plant that one interviewee commented that her husband always referred to his mother by her first send for when inside the factory, saying that there was no point in avocation her Mam because there were so many mothers and children on the shop-floor. A number of people met their future spouses at the plant and patterns of life-time work within the factory traditionally facilitated exit and re-entry into work, following childbearing.The expectation of a job being available resulted in many women giving up work to have families, in the knowledge accurate up to the last years of re-employment at a afterward date. A third advantage for life outside work was perceived to be the factorys predictable working hours. near all staff (over 95%) at Burberry were employed full-time, with the factory operate Monday to Friday, 7. 45 a. m. to 4. 40 p. m .As one respondent commented after the closure, she really disoriented the Monday to Friday routine this routine being something else that was seen to compensate for the low wage range paid at the factory (and a routine absent from many jobs subsequently obtained, as discussed below). Fourth, many references were made to the social aspects of work, with interviewees and survey respondents using terms such as their Burberry family and one big family, where they saw their neighbours every(prenominal) day.Though aspects of the work routines were reported as strict, the work atmosphere was clear punctuated by all the antics they had, and the everyday chat. Comments on the latter included formally we were supposed to start at 7. 45 but some of us used to go in 15 minutes early for a chat before we started work. Once youd done your number piecework target you could take a break and go upstairs to the toilets for a chat.As in Luptons study (1963 723), the workers did not idealize the tensions or the work of factory life at the Burberry plant, which was hard and low paid, particularly for the majority of female workers who earned little more than the national nominal wage. Comments about their Burberry family were made alongside derogatory remarks about Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 33 Blyton and Jenkins their former employers. Thus nostalgia for factory life was reserved for memories of events and those friendships and people that had characterized workers experience of employment at the plant.There were also more organized social activities such as charity fund-raising events, works trips and parties which were clearly valued (and missed) and, in combination with the informal relations between workers, had contributed significantly to the ongoing contact with others in the community. In addition to these four aspects of positive connection between work and non-work life, respondents identified two further, related a ttributes of their work that had relevance for life outside the factory.First, several commented on the skills they had acquired at Burberry and the positive feelings that this had given them ( vanity at being a Burberry worker). Examples of reported skills were numerous, including the interviewees who pointed out hand-sewers still working at the plant in 2007, and indicated their level of skill in comments such as we used to prove the methods (proving a method involved transferring a design from planning into full production, something necessary from time to time with difficult garments, and requiring considerable expertise).Several referred to the national awards for excellence won by the factory, to the long hours they had worked beyond their contracts, and being always keen to get the work out. Closely associated with the pride in their skills, a number of respondents reported an acquired positioning that reflected responsibilities held within the factory which they felt had b een undermined by job loss. The quest to maintain social status and social identity has been recognized in studies of redundancy among men, such as former steel workers (Harris, 1987 36).From several ex-Burberry respondents came comments that they were shocked to find themselves treated in the job search process as low skilled or unskilled (as a result of generally absent certified or accredited qualifications), with their former status within the plant often being replaced by alternative employment in junior-level service sector jobs. One interviewee, for example, who had held supervisory responsibilities at Burberry, commented that her next employer (the retail chain Argos) entrusted her with virtually no responsibility they didnt know me or what Id done.In their study, Bailey et al. (2008 50) comment on the crucial regularise of the local labour market for re-employment, together with accredited skills, the need for ongoing rearing support and help with travelling for work. Ou r findings lead us to agree that the longing to travel and retrain for work are key determinants of success in job search, and this former supervisor at Burberry was an example of what occurs when low paid, insecure, unorthodox work makes travel too costly.Though she had taken advantage of wretched-term training courses offered by local employment services, she was unable to gain recognition for the skills she had acquired over 40 years of factory working and had been able to obtain completely two temporary jobs since factory closure. She described the consequent effects on her sand of purpose and identity and the negative physical and emotional effects of being a job-seeker for the first time in her life in her mid-50s, as devastating and the cause of depression.All told, our respondents (even those who tell they had grown to enjoy their new employment and were earning more) expressed regret at the loss of the social factors that have been discussed in this section, which con stituted significant compensations for the comparatively low wage rates at the Burberry plant. subsequently closure, the legacy of years of low pay and particularly the marginalization of womens work as unskilled meant that Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 34Work, Employment and Society 26(1) job search was an activity that prioritized the local labour market. Once workers entered new forms of employment, however, they did so without the supporting structure of the social network and sense of identity that (for them) had defined the experience of being a Burberry worker. The changing relationship between work and life outside work redundancy, re-employment and social isolation The vast majority of the redundant Burberry workers restricted their job search to their own locality.This choice was partly facilitated by the building of a new Wal-Mart Asda store, along with the availability of oversee work with the local say-so. Data from the lo cal Job Centre Plus confirmed our finding that the majority of Burberry workers prioritized proximity of alternative employment over other factors such as remaining in similar occupations or moving for alternative manufacturing opportunities elsewhere. The context of low pay made relocation financially unrealistic, even if it had been desired. In 2007 the local jobs market was dominated by part-time hours, relatively low earnings and little perceived security.These criteria fall far short of an incentive to drive established households and lose the support network of family, community and friends. As well as the risk of not finding give out or secure employment elsewhere, workers faced the constraints of the housing market and the low property values characteristic of deindustrialized areas, which effectively trap people in regions of high unemployment (McNulty, 1987 42). Relocation was therefore an unrealistic option for the majority of our respondents, but this did not prevent it being proposed for consideration during the process of job search.One male interviewee recounted his first visit to a local Job Centre Plus, where he was faced with a question he found outrageous Do you know the first thing they Job Centre staff said to me was, Are you on the watch to move? Can you believe that? Why would I want to move away? I said no, I wouldnt. This reaction was typical of the majority of our respondents. While the plant was still open but under notice of closure, Burberry provided employment consultants to help with job search and vacancies were posted on the factory notice-board.One interviewee described how she and other workers used to have a laugh about the jobs being advertised hundreds of miles outside Rhondda, many of which were also part-time at minimum wage rates. Several interviewees commented (during the run-up to closure and in later interviews) that they regarded the posting of such jobs as not only ridiculous but also a cynical ploy to misrepr esent their website, feeling that Burberry could shout it was doing all it could to meet its responsibilities to a workplace community that could find alternative work if only it took up the opportunities the company had researched on their behalf.For workers though, not only relocation but the option of daily commuting was constrained by the precise nature of work available. The costs and difficulties of travel for variable star shifts and short daily hours spread over 24 hours and five or seven-spot days of the week were not likely to be sustainable on a low income. All these factors made relocation and travelling for work to different degrees economically impracticable. Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 35 Blyton and Jenkins Table 1.Summary of patterns of work and earnings for former Burberry workers one year after redundancy Respondents Male (n=9) Female (n=71) As % of total respondents 11% 89% Working patterns prior to factory closure, March 2007 No. and proportion employed full-time 9 (100%) 68 (94%) Working patterns following factory closure, March 2008 No. of respondents in paid work 7 46 No. and proportion employed full-time 7 (100%) 19 (41%) No. and proportion in part-time work 0 27 (59%) Proportion of respondents in paid work, 28% 23% eporting an increase in weekly earnings Proportion of respondents in paid work, 71% 56% account a fall in weekly earnings All (n=80) 100% 77 (95%) 53 26 (49%) 27 (51%) 24% 59% At the time of our 2008 survey, honorable over two-thirds of the respondents were in paid work with the remainder divided roughly equally between those who had retired and those still seeking employment. The majority of those in work were in the same job that they found on expiration Burberry, while 15 respondents had had two or more jobs since their redundancy.The areas of paid work entered by our sample were mainly in the manufacturing, home-care or retail sectors two-thirds of respondents in paid w ork entered relatively low-skill service sector employment. Table 1 highlights the studys findings on the nature of re-employment patterns. Just over half of the respondents in paid work were employed part-time, on hours ranging from six to 30 per week (and with a mean and mode of 20 hours).Most (88%) of those with part-time jobs reported that their actual hours varied week by week. Those in care work and retail jobs were especially likely to hold part-time contracts with variable hours. The care contracts, for example, typically began as (effectively) zero-hour contracts with no hours guaranteed until a training period was completed. After that, just 16 hours per week were commonly guaranteed, though workers could be asked to work as many as 30 hours in a week depending on demand.The same was true of retail work, though attaining a 30-hour week was far less common in that sector. For many, their parttime status (rather than their hourly rate of pay) was the principal reason why the ir weekly earnings were lower than they had been at Burberry. In several subsequent interviews, respondents commented that making ends meet while working part-time was only made viable by supplementary bring up benefits and that part-time employment dominated available opportunities rather than being a chosen option.Both from survey responses and interview comments, it was also clear that many were subject to working time patterns that not only varied from week to week but were also highly unpredictable, in terms of both clock and duration. For those on variablehours contracts, their shifts could be scheduled during the daytime, evening or weekends, and for many their forthcoming weekly schedule was known only at the latter end of the previous week. In interviews, the majority of respondents commented on the difficulties Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 6 Work, Employment and Society 26(1) created in their home lives by the variability and whimsey of their new work commitments. One interviewee, for example, employed full-time as a hotel receptionist in 2008 had had her hours cut to 20 per week when interviewed in 2009, and she received just ? 120. 00 gross weekly pay. Though contractually her employer undertook to issue shift patterns and times one month in advance, in coif working patterns were given to her weekly. Shifts ran from 7 a. m to 3 p. m. , 10 a. m. to 6 p. m. , and 3 p. m. o 11 p. m. , and it was quite normal to have to narrow back-to-back shifts finishing at 11 p. m. and starting work again at 7 a. m. She commented that the worst thing about the job was the time and unpredictability of the shift work You cant plan anything. Ive just had to cancel a dentists appointment because theyve called me in for a shift and I cant make other appointment because I wont know what Im working next week. Without her parents help, this interviewee commented that she could not have coped with caring for her daughter.It was family support that allowed her to progress to any sort of balance, however imperfect, between her paid and unpaid working life and the tax-credit state benefit (effectively acting as a reward for a low paying employer) was an essential factor allowing her to afford to travel to work and keep her employment. A further example of the negative impact of unpredictable hours concerned another respondent who now worked for the local authority (via their care work agency) and was a married mother of two children.Her employment was typical of work in this sector in that it began (in 2007) as a zero-hour contract, with actual hours of work determined wholly by demand. She received notice of her hours each weekend, for the following week. Her shifts were normally based on notional patterns of 8 a. m. to 10. 30 a. m. and 4. 30 p. m. to 6 p. m. over a seven-day period, but she never knew exactly how many hours she would be given (or which days she would work) for the week ahead. As a new employee, in common with all new recruits, she was classed as casual and therefore had no guaranteed hours of work.The interviewee explained that this meant that she sometimes had four hours work for a week, but that this could just as likely be twenty or thirty, depending on what her supervisor assigned. Permanent status was necessary to attain guaranteed minimum income equivalent to 16 hours work per week. As a casual, she said that planning her income or any sort of family event was impossible even knowing her hours one week in advance did not help as they can call you, phone you, any time and ask you to come in.And as a worker hopeful of apportioning to a permanent team and reliant on the support of her line manager, this interviewee did not feel she had the scope to refuse any such request. In January 2010, she had still not been upgraded from casual status and could depend on just three hours work a week. Unpredictable work patterns were not the sole preserve of women worker s. Men were more likely to obtain full-time work but, anecdotally, were more prone to lay-off or seasonally influenced working patterns.One of our male respondents found a seasonal, 40-hour a week job marginally above the national minimum wage rate after several months of unemployment. With no security of contract or predictability of hours, he worked entirely according to the employers demand. In the summer he could work as many as 65 hours a week, reducing to 20 at other periods, and was laid off altogether in Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 37 Blyton and Jenkins the coldest months.Hours of work were notified one week in advance, but were frequently subject to change on the day. He regarded placing his time completely at the employers disposal as essential to keep his employment. This interviewee had a history of 30 years of regular employment at Burberry and commented that his new working life was a source of anxiety for the future. Jobs with such variable and unpredictable hours have become common in sectors such as retailing (Backett-Milburn et al. , 2008 Henly et al. 2006 liter, 2008 Zeytinoglu et al. , 2004) and care (Henninger and Papouschek, 2008 Rubery et al. , 2005). It is also clear that further variability occurs in real time as employees are requested at short notice to wedge on, or leave early, to reflect particular work circumstances. For management, this access to variable hours offers a means of deploying labour to shadow fluctuations both in demand and available staff but for the people we were interviewing, this variability and unpredictability had many drawbacks.In particular these disadvantages included a general uncertainty over their work schedule, making it difficult to plan activities outside work for some, increased problems of organizing childcare and maintaining a consistent care arrangement a disruption to domestic routines such as meal times and a lack of inactive income as earnings f luctuated with actual hours worked. In the 2008 survey, questions were also asked about changes in other areas of respondents non-work lives since the factory closure. Responses to a question about socializing and friendships since the closure showed a marked deterioration.Almost three in five (58%) indicated that this aspect of their life had got worse, compared to 30 per cent saying it had stayed the same and a minority reporting an improvement. In subsequent interviews, several commented that they saw friends and neighbours much less now that Burberry had closed and female interviewees remained emotional about their changed situation even two years after the closure I miss the company I can pick the phone up and speak to people, but its not the same. Now, I have no social life. There are no friends passing here nd although people say they will keep in touch, they dont. A similar picture was evident in relation to community troth. Over two in five of the survey respondents repor ted a decline in their community involvement since the factory closure, compared to approximately one in seven who reported an increase (the remainder reporting no change). Both in comments on the survey and in interview comments, several references were made to having less money for going out, compared to former full-time earnings at Burberry.This was especially the case for part-time workers. Those working part-time were more likely (compared to their counterparts in full-time jobs) to indicate that both their level of friendships and community involvement had deteriorated in the time since the factory closure. From comments in interviews, it was evident that reduced involvement with friends and the community were issues related to the break up of the workplace community (which had acted as a conduit to wider community involvement), lack of income and the consequence of more fragmented work patterns.Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 38 Work, Employment and Society 26(1) Conclusion While other responses made by the former Burberry workers indicated that the clothing factory was far from an ideal place to work, the factory nevertheless engendered a strong sense of workplace community which in turn extended to various aspects of workers non-work lives. As a consequence, the workplace had a number of positive spillover effects into the non-work lives of its workforce.The frequence of interpersonal contact, access to employment for family members, the sense of pride, skill and status that the work generated and the proximity of work to home all were seen to create a skillful effect on the workers lives more generally. The way that, for many, these factors later diminished, further underlines what the workers had gained from working at Burberry. Subsequent work, much of it part-time and/or with irregular and unpredictable hours, undermined the stability of contact, interaction and social life that had prevailed hitherto.Wi despread reductions in earnings exacerbated this situation with less disposable income to spend on a social life. These insights into work to non-work spillover contribute to the work-life debate in two ways. First, they underline the limitations of couching the discussion, as has been common, in terms of the negative impact of work on non-work life. It was clear among this group of workers that their former work experience at Burberry had generated various positive spillover effects, these only diminishing as they moved to other employment after the factory closed.Second, as was discussed at the head of the article, any attention that has been given to positive spillover from work to home has focused largely on the influence of individual work-related variables such as job bliss. Aspects of these individual-level factors were certainly present among the ex-Burberry workers a sense, for example, that the status acquired through responsibilities in the factory also had meaning in th e non-work community.Importantly, what the present study underlines are more group level, sociological factors positively poignant areas of non-work life the importance, for example, of interaction among the workforce, reinforced by chat, gossip and having a laugh. Further, the way the factory represented a source of family, rather than only when individual, employment and the proximate location of the factory in the Treorchy community further reinforced a sense of community both inside and outside the factory.The studys findings also contribute to the discussion on the extent to which parttime working can contribute to work-life balance or, put differently, the way part-time work reflects a preference for a particular balance of time between work and non-work (Hakim, 2000). Several authors (for example, Walsh, 2007 Walters, 2005 Warren, 2004) have already pointed to the shortcomings of using part-time work as an indicator of a preference and a dodging for achieving work-life bal ance noting in particular that this fails to take into account the heterogeneity of part-time work and that, for ome, working part-time is not a means to discover work-life balance but rather a source of low pay and poor-quality jobs. The present study further underlines the need for a more separate view of part-time working. In our sample, while many working part-time in principle had more time available for non-work activities even when taking longer travelling times into account this did not translate into more time for friends or community activity. On the contrary, part-time working was associated with work-life Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013 9 Blyton and Jenkins impoverishment for this group more than work-life balance. For most of those on part-time contracts who had been used to working full-time, part-time work was an undesirable consequence of the kind of paid work available within the local labour market. The lower earnings that the part-time jobs generated and the variability and unpredictability of many working patterns detracted from, rather than contributed to, the quality of workers non-work lives. Overall, these findings signal the value of a nuanced approach in discussions around work-life balance.In focusing on the associations of work to non-work life, this article has identified the ways in which associations may be positive or negative and has indicated that the nature of those associations may vary over time and from one context to another. As a result of tracing the subsequent employment experiences of the former garment workers in this study, it became clear that there is a continuing need for wider recognition not only of the heterogeneous nature of part-time work, but also the reasons why people are working part-time and the degree to which it is a voluntary, employeedriven choice.It was also clear that variable and unpredictable work patterns may exert a significant deleterious influen ce on the ability of workers successfully to organize and fully enjoy their lives outside work. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge and thank the union representatives and former Burberry employees who participated in this research. We would also like to express our gratitude to the editor and three anonymous referees for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this article. 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Paul Blyton is Professor of Industrial Relations and Industrial Sociology at Cardiff Business School and Research Associate in the ESRC Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society (BRASS) at Cardiff University.His research interests include employee responses to organizational chang e, working time and work-life balance. novel publications include The Sage Handbook of Industrial Relations, co-edited with Nicolas Bacon, Jack Fiorito and Edmund Heery (Sage, 2008) Ways of vivification Work, Community and Lifestyle Choice, co-edited with Betsy Blunsdon, Ken Reed and Ali Dastmalchian (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) Reassessing the Employment Relationship, co-edited with Edmund Heery and Peter Turnbull (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) and Researching Sustainability, co-edited with Alex Franklin (Earthscan, 2011).Jean Jenkins is a lecturer in HRM at Cardiff Business School. Her research interests include labour conditions and unionization in the global garment sector, working time and union-management partnership. Recent publications include Work Key Concepts, with Paul Blyton (Sage, 2007). Date submitted January 2010 Date authoritative November 2010 Downloaded from wes. sagepub. com at University of Bath on March 21, 2013

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